summerize the article of “David foster Wallace ” Kenyon Commencement Speech.

In the speech,speaker Wallace talks about the real value of higher education as well as life. According to the speaker that higher education, especially liberal education is a media or way where people train or learn how to think about around the world. Moreover he said that if education does not provide anything creative  that could be compare with the concrete. He also mention that if any educated people does not know what going on around him he could not be real educated person,because the real aim of the education is make the people  aware about their surrounding. In the speech, he said “the real value of a real education,which has almost nothing to with knowledge, and evrything to do with simple awareness; awareness of what is so real and essential”. In addition he said that if the aim of the life is “money and things ” than a person never get the taste of the real life. In short the main theme of the speech is being educated means learn how to think and be conscious .

I think  this speech has great value  in our life. Speaker does not mention only the value of education , he also bring all individuel that how we should spend our life. How an individuel enjoy their life. How two things(think and awarness) can be change the whole life.

use chapter 10 tamplates:”But don’t get me wrong”

Gender discrimination is a widespread and overestimated phenomenon. Developed or non-developed country, to a greater or lesser extent, all countries and economies present a gender gap. The relative status of woman is poor in the developing world, compare to developed country. More woman enter in labor market means increase in per capita income which leads to higher economic growth. Research shows that there may be market failures hindering investment in girls in developing countries and that effect on their economic growth. Ultimately,then, my goal is to demonstrate  that a extend gender gaps in education and employment (using gender gaps in labor force participation) reduce economic growth. Because of the systematic pattern, study suggest that low investment in woman is not any efficient economic choice, moreover it is bad for economic growth. A study presents that thus societies has to pay for not to investing in girls in terms of slower growth and reduced income. “The combined “costs” of education and employment gaps in Middle east and north Africa and south Asia amount respectively to 0.9-1.7 and 0.1-1.6percentage point difference in growth compared to East Asia.” Gender gaps in employment perform to have an increasing effect on economic growth difference between regions, with the Middle East and North Africa and south Asia suffering from slower growth in female employment.

Gender inequality refers to unequal behavior or views of individuals based on their gender. While sex refers to physical differences of the body, gender distresses the psychological, social, and cultural differences between males and females. It is widely recognized that gender discrimination is a prevalent phenomenon. In everywhere females find it more struggle than males to entrance market activities, political power, or health and education inputs. As mentioned in Hausmann, Tyson, and Zahidi (2006), “no country in the world has yet reached equality between woman and men in critical areas such economic participation, education, health, and political empowerment.” My point is not how gender inequality in widespread in the world but how  gender inequality in education and employment affect economic growth.The causes and consequences of gender inequality are interrelated each other through the complex system of social, cultural and economics determination. There are many reasons to be worried about existing gender inequalities in important well being magnitude such as education, health, employment, or pay.   A literature has developed recently which investigated the fundamentals effects of gender inequality on other important development outcomes with a particular center of attention on economic growth.

A main focus of that literature has been to analyze the impact of gender inequality on economic growth. A number of theory and analysis suggest that there has a negative correlation between gender inequality and economic growth (e.g.Odded Galor and David weil1996;Nils-Petter Lagerlof 2003).  “Social observes have long noted that the status of woman and overall socio-economic development tend to go hand –in –hand (Harriet Martineau).  In the poorest quartile countries in 1990, only 5% of adult woman had any secondary education, one –half of the level for men. In the richest quartile, on the other hand, 51% of adult woman had at least some secondary education, 88% of the level for man. This information provides that in the developing countries, women are particularly inadequately served in terms of education.

Gender inequality, income and growth co factor each other.  It is possible that income affects gender inequality; that gender inequality affects growth and income or both. The primary focus of this paper is how gender discrimination in education and income affect on economic growth. Some earlier study suggest that gender inequality in education might  actually increase economic growth(Robert Barro and Jong-Wha Lee 1994) but recently researcher(Ann Hill and Elizabeth King1995;David Doller and Roberta Gatti 1999Cristin Forbes 2000; Stephen Knowles,Paula Lorgelly and Dormin Owen 2002; Stephan Klasen 2002;Steven Yamarik and Sucharita Gosh 2003; Diana Abu-Ghaida and Klsen2004; Stephan klasen and Francesca Lamanna 2008) find opposite case. In this paper not only find the relation between gender inequalities in education with economical growth also able to explain why earlier study gets opposite result.

Study found that the gender enequality in education and income effects are quite large for the regions where gender discrimination is sizable, such as South Asia or the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In fect Klasen (2008) estimated that “.9 percentage points of the 1.8 percentage point annual per capita growth difference between the countries in MENA and those in East Asia and the Pacific can be attributed to higher initial gender inequality in education there as well as a slower closing of the gap vis-à-vis East Asia and the pacific.” This paper has attempted to explain that gender inequality in education and income lead to reduce economic growth. In other words,The gender equality and economic development are jointly reinforcing. To put it another way ,woman education is a good investment that raises national income, and higher income in turn leads to more gender equality- in education and in other areas (Doller, Gatti 1999).

A number of theoretical and empirical studies finding that gender inequality in education and employment reduces economic growth. This paper presents some of them. Regarding gender inequality in education the study suggests as a first argument that gender inequality reduces average human capital in society and thus harms the performance of economic growth(Klasen 1999,2002,2006,2008). For gender discrimination when a pool of talent girls deprived from education and thereby society also deprived from talented human capital(and taking less qualified boys instead, e.g.Doller and Gatti 1999). According to the macroeconomics ,  “declining marginal returns to  education , restricting the education of girls to lower levels while taking the education of boys to higher of boys to higher levels means that the marginal return to educating  girls is higher than that of boys  and thus would boost overall economic performance(world bank 2001;Knowles et al 2002)”. A second argument is promoting female education related with other social benefit. Incidentally, we will briefly note,girl’s education means  fertility levels, reduce child morality and promote the education of the next generation. reduceSo this information provides that girl’s education link with many positive factor which leads to economic growth. Similarly gender gaps in education reduce the benefit to society of high female education (e.g.Galor and Weil 1996;Lagerlof 1999;World Bank 2001; King,Klasen, and  porter 2008).  5.4%of adult woman have in the secondary education in the poorest country, where the adult man percentage is 11.6%. In the richest countries ,comparable figures for male 54.8% and man for 57.9%(Dollar,Gatti 1999). just as important, woman education reduces fertility levels. A study finds that  reduced fertility levels  increase the higher working age population and thus leads to economic growth. woman live longer than man in all societies, but difference is small in poorest countries (life expectancy of 48.3 years for man and 51.3 years for woman) compare to the richest countries(73 years for men and 79.1 years for women).

A third argument about how gender inequality impact on global economy. “Many East Asian countries have been able to be competitive on world markets through the use of female intensive export –oriented manufacturing industries, a strategy that is now finding followers in south Asia and individual countries across the developing world”(e.g. Seguina 2000). In developing countries woman’s have opportunity to enter the competitive manufacture industries but they can access in there because education barrier to their employment. According to the World Bank that gender inequality in education and employment would reduce the ability of countries to capitalize on these opportunities.

A fourth argument about female employment and how their earnings related with their personal and family life. Female employment and earnings increase their bargaining power in the home(Amartya Sen,world bank, Stepphan klasen). This not only better for women, women employment means more savings and more investment which brings economic growth for family as well as nation.

Gender equality in education and employment is linked with nation’s economic growth. so this is a challenge for a country to bring gender equality for higher economic growth. If any society has extend gender gaps ,not only woman entire society has to pay for that by lower economic growth. Gender inequality in education in the Middle East and North Africa and South ASia region continues to harm growth in that region. In short,gender equality in education and employment increase economic growth.

Revise the essay to address “So What?” and “Who Cares” using the templates Ch. 7 in “They say/ I say”.

In the “fireside education”,   Samuel Goodrich said about child rearing that, “The Great Lawgiver has nowhere said to parents, bestow wealth, honor or power on your children, but he has said to them, by the very constitution of human nature, educate your children wisely, if you would train them up to fulfill   their duty and their destiny – if you would ensure their escape from misery or promote their chance of happiness.”  Every moment people learn something through his entire life, but learning begins from home. The responsibilities of parents are educated their children and developing their mental, physical, moral and intellectual faculties. A proper “Homeschooling” can provide a child better education, mental and physical development. Both parents play a great role behind raising a child that promotes them to go to the next level.

According to the context clue, the picture represents the child education at home. In our society, mother and father often display in two different ways to rear their children. In the picture, “The mother sways the dominion of the heart, the father that of the Intellect”. Mother introduces their children with love, affection and morality. On the other hand, father introduces with wisdom’s and  intellectualism  However, both parents have a great role behind raising a child which promotes them to go to the next level. Joyce L. Epstein, in a 1995 article and a 2001 book titled School, Family, and Community Partnerships, argued that school, family, and community are important “spheres of influence” on children’s development and that a child’s educational development is enhanced when these three environments work collaboratively toward shared goals”.

Homeschooling or home-school  is the education of children at home, typically by parents ,rather than in other formal settings of public or private school. Until relatively recently , the home was the only learning center for vast majority of the people.In the picture we see a family where a mother sits on the chair holding with two kids and father shows his son the moon. The father holds a book on his one hand and another hand he is using to explain something to his child. Moreover, son holds a glove which also indicates that father is explaining the relation between the moon and sun. The child is curious to understand the concept of his father explanation. He is eager to know about everything around him.  He gets all the answers from his father, his father know why day and night happens, why apples fall in the ground not rise in the cloud. Father filled up his curious mind. It illustrates that the basic knowledge of a child is coming from parents. In 1977, American educator and author John Holt said in his magazine “Growing Without Schooling” that  “I think that the home is the proper base for the exploration of the world which we call learning or education. Home would be the best base no matter how good the schools were.”

        On the other hand, in the picture it shows that “The mother sways the dominion of the heart”. Mother introduces children with love, affection and moral instructions. On other word, she teaches about social behavior, imagination, critical thinking which introduces him with  liberal education.

     Regarding to the early Childhood Education and the physical and mental development of children over 800 study shows that “formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness, but was actually harmful to children”. 

The theme of the picture is also universal.  However, modern technology improvised education system still home is the basic source of their learning. For learning we go to school, different academic institution, but our learning begins from our home. Children not only learn academic education at home but also introduce with religious or moral instructions. In some country, homeschooling use as a supplementary education, ways of helping children learn, in specific circumstances. Many years ago, people were educated by family members especially from their parents. Formal academic learning system has been the most common means of schooling throughout the world, since the early and mid-19th century. This picture is not only related with education, it’s also related with parents and children relationship. Parents can bring success in their children life if they guide their children in proper way.

In most cases parents are our first teacher in our life. They teach us to walk, to speak and how to behave with other people before we reach “the real world.” Parents are not only play role in child education; they also play  important role in other stage too.


Naysayers in “Hidden Intellectualism”

In the article”Hidden Intellectualism” the writer Gerald Graff make a argument about street smart and book smart.Writer presents some “naysayers” in the article for her counterargument.”What a waste ,we think,that one who is so intelligent about so many things in life seems unable to apply that intelligence to academic work”. She describe street smart as “Hidden intelligent”  .Gerald Graff believe that street smarts are beat out book smarts because street smart focus their intellectualism like unrealistic.As a naysayer professor Ned Laff view that street smarts are not enough smart and students should focus their interest “through academic eyes”.In short,writer claims that school and college should encourage their students according to their interest,otherwise it doesn’t bring any valuable result.

Although not all educators think alike ,some of them will probably dispute my claim that  college are missing an opportunity to utilize  the smartness of “street smarts” students.If students are not interest about any specific topic,they will be unable to focus their real intelligence.Yes it is necessarily true that  street smart are not less smart than book smart?It is always the case ,as i have been suggesting,that having students what they interest would be focused real intelligent.

Summery of “Are Colleges Worth the Price of Admission?”

In the article, “Are colleges Worth the Price of Admission?” the writer Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus report us that even though the rate of  tuition charges at both public and private colleges have increased but the standard of higher education is not improving.In general,  the article talks about what student or family gaining  for those investment.According to the writer study ,”Colleges are taking on too many rules and doing none of them well.”Moreover ,Andrew and Claudia presents some proposal for the reform of higher education curriculum.Improving of teaching skill ,encourage students  in the liberal arts for their creative thinking and imagination, and they also talk about the employee of higher education.End of the article,  they talk  about some university,who are doing well  according to the writer opinion.

Three ways to respond:

In the article ,writer make some good points.I agree with the writers when they said ,the way of education standard are not improving,compare to the tuition charges.I also agree with some of the writer proposals about reforming of higher education curriculum. As a student ,it is not surprising to me that a good ,caring and attentive professor can make a good student.I definitely agree with the writers that student should become more thoughtful and interesting people and  liberal arts can be better investment for students.

Although writer makes some good points in the article,but i  disagree  with the writer thought that “higher education has lost track of its original and enduring purpose”. Even though the central idea of this article is what  the worth of higher education,but the  writers mostly discussed about  some specific institutions curriculum.

In the article ,the writers make some good points.Writers are right that  higher education  is not improving as the comparison of tuition fee. Moreover writers make a good point about “techno-teaching”. Technology can’t take place of a live teacher.I also agree with the writers when they said that donors should spread their donations around  which colleges are really deserve for this donate.


Summery of “The New Liberal Arts”

According to the Sanford j. Uugar, “This time around liberal arts education has been especially hard it”. in the article , the new liberal arts the writer Sanford j Ungar presents seven major mis-perceptions about liberal arts education. in writers view , 1st misperception about liberal arts is that  “A liberal education arts writer degree is a luxury that most families can no longer afford. Career education is what we now must focus on”. Although people think liberal arts are just wasting money and it cannot be good field for carrier,writer think liberal arts are  the best way to do better in profession. In misperception no 2 ,writer argues when people say it is hard for “irrelevant” major students to get a job in this hard economic crisis. Mr. Sanford showed some study which concludes there has a huge place in job market where people highly recommended creative writing and oral skill. Another misperception, with liberal arts degree students ,they have lower income and they should practice more practice  and marketable thing. Misperception no 4 is STEM fields should also include in liberal arts. Writer also argue with another misperception  that we should no encourage our young generation to liberal arts,because liberal democrats who got this country into trouble.According to the author ,America is not only country who clings to such an old fashioned form of education as the liberal arts. He presents  example of France that has mastery of philosophical and scientific concepts is mandatory. In misperception no 7,the cost of america education is out of control so students are not interest of irrelevant major like liberal arts.So Mr. Sanford suggests that small liberal institution is better than large public university. In short ,writer think we should keep away those misperceptions.May be financial issue is matter but we should not forget that liberal arts teach us how to talk,how to think creatively,and how to live a life rich in values and character. In another way we are not machine which just solve problems; we are human who develop patterns that help them to keep learning rest of their life.

Summery of “Blue-Collar Brilliance” Essay

In the article,”Blue-collar Brilliance” the writer Mike Rose claims that intelligence is  not only related with formal education but it can also be associated with  any type of schooling. Rose showed different examples from his personal life which supports that “Blue-collar” work and service is combination of physical and mental skill as white-collar. For instance ,writer’s mother, Rosie  was a waitress who had to work not only physically but also she had to remember which order for whom. Mr Joe believed ,who worked in a factory that every day he learned something from his work. He felt more challenge in his professionalism  where he solved lot of problems,managed lot of things at a time which is like a schooling.In conclusion,writer suggests that we should not classified people’s intelligence by their profession.

In the article ,Mike Rose makes a good point that we should not classified people by their profession that some profession’s people are more intelligent than other.Blue -collar worker not only work by physically but also work mentally.For example,I have been working in a resturent as a drive thrue cashier where i have to deal with 2-3 customer at a time.I am not only deal with my physical strength but also i have to  work mentally.